7 Best Moisturizers With Sunscreen

On the hunt for the perfect daily moisturizer that hydrates skin and delivers sun protection? The Environmental Working Group (EWG) recently released its annual ranking of the best sunscreen products in different categories, including their favorite moisturizers with SPF. The EWG prioritizes mineral sunscreen ingredients over chemical ones in their annual ranking, so if that’s important to you too, any of their top picks would be a good choice for your everyday skincare routine.

Sonya Lunder, a senior analyst at the EWG, spoke to Health about the group’s process for ranking each product. “First, we determine the estimated sun protection by looking at the active ingredients,” she says. Lunder explains that this helps them predict how well the formula will protect you from the sun’s harmful UV rays, which can increase your risk of skin cancer. The second step involves analyzing each product’s inactive ingredients. Finally, the EWG rates each product on a scale of 1 to 10, with 1 being the best.

Here are seven moisturizers with SPF that the EWG gave a top 1 ranking. For the full list, visit ewg.org.


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Here’s What Skipping Breakfast Does to Your Body

It’s a hotly contested question in the nutrition world: is breakfast really the most important meal of the day? Experts say that people who eat breakfast are less likely to overeat the rest of the day, but recent studies have found no difference in weight between those who skip their morning meal and those who don’t. In the meantime, skipping meals has become an increasingly popular part of modern life.

Breakfast-eaters tend to have lower rates of heart disease, high blood pressure and high cholesterol, the American Heart Association reported earlier this year, but the group says the science isn’t strong enough to suggest that people who don’t normally eat breakfast should start. On the other hand, some research has even suggested that fasting for longer overnight periods (eating an early dinner, for example) could actually help people lose weight.

Now, a small new study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition sheds some light on what really happens in the body when people skip breakfast on a regular basis. People burn more calories on days they skip breakfast, but that the habit may increase dangerous inflammation.

MORE: 5 Fascinating Facts About Breakfast

Researchers from the University of Hohenheim in Germany tested 17 healthy adults on three separate days: once when they skipped breakfast, once when they had three regular meals and once when they skipped dinner. Despite the change in scheduling, the calorie content and breakdown of carbohydrates, fat and protein were the same on all three days. (On days with a skipped meal, the other two meals had extra calories to make up for it.) Each day, blood samples were collected frequently from 7 a.m. until 9 p.m. to measure hormone levels, glucose and insulin concentrations, and immune cell activity.

They found that people burned more calories over a 24-hour period when they extended their overnight fast by skipping either lunch (41 more calories) or dinner (91 more calories), compared with the three-meals-a-day schedule. These findings are in line with other studies on time-restricted eating.

They found no difference in 24-hour glucose levels, insulin secretion or total physical activity between the three days. But glucose concentrations and markers of inflammation and insulin resistance were higher after lunch on breakfast-skipping days.

People also oxidized more fat, meaning their bodies broke down more of their stored fat reserves, on days when they skipped breakfast. That may sound like a good thing, but the researchers say it could have a downside. It suggests an impairment in metabolic flexibility, the body’s ability to switch between burning fat and carbohydrates—which “may in the long term lead to low-grade inflammation and impaired glucose homeostasis,” they wrote.

The researchers concluded that because chronic inflammation is known to affect insulin sensitivity, skipping breakfast could contribute to “metabolic impairment,” which could potentially raise the risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes.

Courtney Peterson, assistant professor of nutrition sciences at the University of Alabama Birmingham, says that more research is needed in order to know the bottom line on breakfast. It’s too early to know whether skipping breakfast has a meaningful effect on inflammation levels, she says, and “the authors’ data does not support the idea that breakfast skipping is bad for health.” Peterson, who was not involved in the new research, studies time-restricted eating. (She led the 2016 study mentioned above, which found that eating an early dinner can boost calorie burn.)

Because the researchers only measured inflammation levels after lunch, she says, “it’s possible that skipping breakfast increases inflammation at lunchtime but decreases it other times of the day.” And because the study was only a few days long, it can’t say whether skipping breakfast regularly would affect health or metabolism.

The study also suggests that skipping breakfast or dinner might help people lose weight, since they burned more calories on those days. Yet she says that the elevated levels of inflammation noted after lunch “could be a problem,” and adds that the finding warrants further research. Skipping meals and other types of intermittent fasting may not be realistic for most people, Peterson says—and it does have the potential to backfire if it triggers unhealthy snacking or overeating later on.

You may even want to rethink which meal you’re sacrificing. Because calorie burn in this study was greater when skipping dinner compared with skipping breakfast, Peterson says “it might be better for weight loss to skip dinner than to skip breakfast.”

This fits with what’s already known about humans’ circadian clock, she adds: “Your metabolism and blood sugar control are better in the morning than they are in the evening and at night, so it makes sense to eat more food earlier in the day.”


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This Week in Health: Exercise Myths and Barre Class Benefits

This week brought encouraging news about exercise: It’s a real anti-ager, you don’t have to do it on an empty stomach and you can get a whole lot out of tiny movements, particularly in barre class. Here’s what else caught our attention in health news this week. (Sign up for the TIME Health newsletter for more.)

Exercise makes you younger at the cellular level

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In a new study, people who got the most physical activity had markers of aging that appeared nine years younger than those who were sedentary.

You asked: Is gluten sensitivity real?

Experts say that non-celiac gluten sensitivity—which is distinct from celiac disease—is legitimate. But that doesn’t necessarily mean you need to follow a gluten-free diet.

Getting an abortion with telemedicine is safe, study says

A telemedicine abortion offers a cheaper, safe option for women who live in places with abortion restrictions, according to new research.

Why barre class is so good for your body

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Molly Cranna for TIME

This ballet-inspired workout can improve balance, flexibility, core strength and muscle endurance. But it may not burn as many calories as you think.

Zinc lozenges may help colds go away 3 times faster

You’ll need high doses to notice a benefit, and not every brand is effective, researchers say. Here’s what to look for in a zinc lozenge.

9 common myths about exercise

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Molly Cranna for TIME

Do you really have to stretch before a workout? Is it better to exercise on an empty stomach? The authors of the new book Fitter Faster give the bottom line on the latest exercise science by busting 9 big fitness myths.

Scientists find rare superbug in Houston

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Infections caused by an uncommon superbug—one resistant to several kinds of antibiotics—are increasingly showing up in a Houston hospital system.

Teen drinking reaches lowest point in 25 years, CDC says

Underage drinking among teens has reached a new low, according to a new government report. Binge drinking, however, is still common.


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Ebola Is Back. Here Are the Challenges Ahead

An outbreak of Ebola has emerged in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and hundreds could be affected, the World Health Organization (WHO) has confirmed. The risk assessment is high at a national level, medium at a regional level and currently low at a global level, said Peter Salama, WHO’s executive director for health emergencies, during a telephone briefing.

Three people have died out of about 20 suspected and confirmed Ebola cases, with the outbreak centered in Bas-Uele, a province in the northeast of the Democratic Republic of Congo, on the border of the Central African Republic and close to South Sudan. So far, the aid workers have identified more than 400 contacts of Ebola cases and are attempting to track them down. (Another outbreak of a disease that shares similar features to Ebola, including vomiting and nausea, has appeared several hundred kilometers away from Bas-Uele, but WHO does not believe the two incidents are linked.)

The Bas-Uele province is remote with poorly built roads and virtually no functioning telecommunications, Salama said, making it a difficult place for aid workers to access. Additionally, it has been subject to insecurity and displacement, particularly due to the ongoing conflict in the Central African Republic. The Lord’s Resistance Army, a rebel group active in central Africa, is believed to have been active in the area.

“We cannot underestimate the logistical and practical challenges associated with this response at a very remote part of the country,” Salama said on the call. “As of now we do not know the full extent of the outbreak, and as we deploy teams over the next few weeks, we’ll begin to understand more and more exactly what we are dealing with.”

The response to the outbreak is being led by the Democratic Republic of Congo’s Ministry of Health and WHO, with partners including the World Food Program, UNICEF and the Red Cross. Priorities currently include a heavy focus on surveillance: getting the best information about the people who have been affected and tracking those who may have been affected, as well as managing and isolating Ebola cases and engaging local communities.

The first Ebola treatment center was recently established in Likati, and the construction and deployment of a mobile lab is in process. Health and care workers are also being provided with protective equipment.

“We believe that the Democratic Republic of Congo’s government has strong experience in dealing successfully with and a proven track record of managing Ebola outbreaks,” Salama said. “We’ve also learned never ever to underestimate the Ebola virus disease and we will be remaining vigilant and ensuring we have no regrets in our approach to this outbreak as we move forward.”

WHO was criticized for its slow and ineffective response to Ebola when it struck West Africa in 2014. In a statement in 2015, WHO said the incident “served as a reminder that the world, including WHO, is ill-prepared for a large and sustained disease outbreak.” WHO then promised to introduce a series of reforms, including the establishment of a contingency fund to enable the organization to respond more rapidly to disease outbreaks. This fund has been deployed by WHO to help tackle the current crisis in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

However, Salama explained that WHO anticipates that the need for funding will soon outstrip the amount of money in the contingency fund. “[For] the first six months [we] will need about 10 million dollars, not just for WHO but for all partners responding,” he said.

WHO is also hoping to use vaccinations as a tool to fight the outbreak. Although there is currently no licensed vaccine for the Ebola virus disease, there is a “very promising vaccine candidate” known as rVSV-ZEBOV that showed efficacy and safety during a trial conducted in Guinea, in West Africa, in 2015.

In order to employ it as an experimental vaccine, WHO needs to seek the permission of the national regulatory authority in the Democratic Republic of Congo to use the treatment under what Salama called an “expanded access framework for compassionate use.”

The vaccinations, which will not be provided to the general population but only to current cases’ contacts, need to be kept at -80 degrees centigrade. “As you can imagine, in an area without telecommunications, without road access [and] without live-scale electrification, this is going to be an enormous challenge,” said Salama. “We are committed to working with the Democratic Republic of Congo…and the other partner agencies to implement the vaccination campaign, should the government give it the green light.”

While WHO waits for the vaccines to be approved, the organization is making sure the treatment can be used immediately after permission has been granted by working with Guinea’s government to move equipment over and discovering the outbreak’s epidemiology. “The vaccine can move very quickly, so as soon as we have the logistics in place… then the vaccine can be shipped [over from the U.S.],” said Dr. Matshidiso Rebecca Moeti, WHO’s Regional Director for Africa. “[We are] putting all these preparations in place so it can go at that speed as soon as we get the green light.”

Moeti said she felt positive about WHO’s response so far. “I’m very optimistic it is going to get us to where we’d like to be: a controlled, short-lived outbreak of Ebola as they have seen in the past in this country.”


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Violent Attacks on Health Care Facilities Increased in 2016, Report Finds

In a 48-hour period in November, warplanes bombed five hospitals in Syria, leaving Aleppo’s rebel-controlled section without a functioning hospital. The loss of the Aleppo facilities — which had been handling more than 1,500 major surgeries each month — was just one hit in a series of escalating attacks on health care workers in 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported on Friday.

Violent attacks on hospitals and health workers “continue with alarming frequency,” the WHO said in its new report. In 2016, there were 302 violent attacks, which is about an 18% increase from the prior year, according to new data. The violence — 74% was in the form of bombings — occurred in 20 countries, but it was driven by relentless strikes on health facilities in Syria, which the WHO has previously condemned. Across the globe, the 302 attacks last year resulted in 372 deaths and 491 injuries.

These attacks have direct consequences for health service delivery, depriving people of often urgently needed care,” the WHO said in a statement, adding that the figures are likely an underestimate. The WHO says up to 38% of health workers face physical violence at some point during their careers.

While bombings were the most common form of violence in 2016, other attacks included shootings, looting, assaults, abduction and arson. The number of attacks are up from the 256 reported worldwide in 2015. In 2014, there were 338 attacks. The WHO reports that there have been 88 attacks to health care facilities and workers so far in 2017.

After the spate of attacks on Syrian hospitals last November, the WHO reported that three of the bombed hospitals in Aleppo had been providing over 10,000 consultations every month. Two other bombed hospitals in the city of Idleb were providing similar levels of care, including 600 infant deliveries. One of the two hospitals in Idleb was a primary referral hospital for emergency childbirth care.

“The attack…is an outrage that puts many more lives in danger in Syria and deprives the most vulnerable – including children and pregnant women – of their right to health services, just at the time when they need them most,” the WHO said.


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Worried About Ibuprofen? Try These 7 Things Instead

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen and naproxen are widely used to treat pain and don’t require a prescription. But recent studies suggest that when taken regularly, these medicines can have serious side effects. They’ve been linked to kidney, bone, hearing and cardiovascular problems—including, most recently, an increased risk of heart attack.

For healthy people with occasional aches, there’s nothing wrong with taking an Advil or an Aleve to relieve discomfort, says Dr. Jyotsna Nagda, a pain specialist at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. But “long-term use of anti-inflammatories is not a good idea,” she says, especially when alternatives are available.

Plus, says Alban Latremoliere, a pain physiologist at Boston Children’s Hospital, NSAIDs don’t always work well—which could prompt people to take higher and higher doses when they should be turning to other treatments. “Instead of looking for a pill that works for every type of pain, we need to be thinking about combination approaches that treat the underlying problems,” he says.

If you’re concerned about the level of pain medicine you’re taking, here are a few things you might try instead.

Acetaminophen or aspirin

Unlike ibuprofen, over-the-counter acetaminophen has not been linked to heart problems. Nagda recommends it to some of her patients—especially elderly ones—who aren’t good candidates for anti-inflammatory medicines.

Still, the drug is not without its own risks. “We recommend it on an as-needed basis, rather than an around-the-clock regimen,” says Nagda. “People should still be careful about the doses, and if they need it somewhat regularly, they should talk to their primary care physician about having their liver function tested.”

Aspirin is another option. While it is an NSAID, studies of regular aspirin use suggest a protective cardiovascular effect, rather than increased risks. (It can, however, cause stomach bleeding and ulcers.) “If someone has regular pain and they’re planning on doing something more strenuous than normal, I might tell them to take an extra-strength aspirin beforehand,” says Nagda.

MORE: The New Bottom Line On Your Daily Aspirin

Omega-3 fatty acids

For arthritis and related conditions, studies show that omega-3 fatty acids—found in fish, fish oil supplements, nuts and seeds—may help reduce pain and inflammation. The Arthritis Foundation recommends taking fish oil capsules with at least 30% omega-3s.

Latremoliere says that following a diet rich in fish, fruits, vegetables and whole grains may also ease pain throughout the body, although it won’t likely take the place of pain medicines entirely. “If you make a habit of avoiding foods that promote inflammation and eating foods that help reduce it, it can definitely be helpful,” he says.

Turmeric

Despite a recent review that called into question the benefits of curcumin—the active compound in turmeric—Nagda says that people seeking pain relief may still want to try adding the yellow spice to their diet.

“It has anti-inflammatory properties, and there are some small studies that show benefits for patients with rheumatoid and other forms of arthritis,” she says. It’s safe in quantities used in cooking and flavoring food, so as long as you don’t mind the taste, there’s little downside.

Acupuncture

This traditional Chinese medicine technique may help reduce pain associated with back pain, neck pain, arthritis, headaches, fibromyalgia pain after surgery, according to research. Not everyone who tries acupuncture improves, says Nagda, but “when you look at risks and benefits compared to other methods like NSAIDs, acupuncture comes out on top with minimal risks.”

While acupuncture’s cost can be prohibitive for many pain sufferers, it is increasingly covered by health insurance—at least in part—as its benefits become clearer. Massage is another approach that’s been shown to to relieve chronic lower back pain.

Exercise and mindful movement

Regular exercise is a good way to ward off chronic pain and to reduce symptoms if it does develop. But certain types of movement may be more beneficial than others.

Tai chi has been shown to benefit people with fibromyalgia, for example, and yoga may help with back pain and arthritis. “Even if these techniques don’t necessarily decrease pain, they may help people cope with it better,” says Nagda.

Nagda also recommends swimming to many of her pain patients, as a way to stay active and flexible without stressing their joints. And for injuries, she stresses the value of using heat and ice and seeing a physical therapist, rather than masking pain with a pill.

Meditation

In one 2016 study, people who practiced seated meditation for 20 minutes a day had less reaction to a painful stimulus than those who sat and read a book. The research didn’t include people with chronic pain, but the authors say meditation could have potential as an alternative to painkillers like opioid drugs. Other research has shown that mindfulness can reduce a person’s experience of physical pain (and emotional pain, too).

“If you meditate, you’re helping your brain relax and get into a state where some of its regions can be slowed down,” says Latremoliere. “That might help reduce focus on pain or attention to stimuli, so it makes sense that it might help people feel better.”

More sleep (or coffee, in a pinch)

Latremoliere’s own research in mice, published recently in Nature Medicine, has shown that chronic sleep deprivation can enhance pain sensitivity—and that a dose of caffeine can temporarily reverse those effects. Studies in humans have also suggested that staying awake for long periods of time can lower people’s thresholds for pain, and that the equivalent of a few cups of coffee before a workout can reduce perceived muscle pain.

“Our research suggests that if you have chronic pain and you’re not sleeping enough, your pain is probably greater because of that,” says Latremoliere. People should be wary of relying on caffeine to get by, however. “Coffee in the morning might help reduce pain and get you through the day,” he says, “but if you have it too late in the day it could make your sleep, and your pain, even worse.”


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CDC and FDA Warn That Lead Poisoning Tests May Be Inaccurate

U.S. health agencies are warning that certain tests for lead poisoning may not be accurate.

Children under 6 and pregnant and nursing women may need to be retested.

The Food and Drug Administration and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on Wednesday said all four tests made by Magellan Diagnostics may give results that are too low when used to measure lead levels in blood drawn from a vein. The FDA believes the issue may date to 2014. The agency says the company’s tests shouldn’t be used for blood samples from a vein.

The agencies say women and parents should ask their doctor whether they need to be tested again. Lead exposure is particularly dangerous for infants and young children. It can cause serious long-term health problems.


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Getting an Abortion With Telemedicine Is Safe, Study Says

As abortion laws in the U.S. have become more restrictive, some women have turned to dangerous methods of terminating their pregnancies at home. But there are safe ways for women to obtain abortions outside of formal health care settings, and a new study underscores the effectiveness of one of these methods: telemedicine.

In the new report, which was published Tuesday in The BMJ, researchers examined self-reported outcomes from 1,000 women in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland who used telemedicine to obtain abortion pills—mifepristone and misoprostol—between 2010 and 2012. After receiving the pills in the mail, women were guided through the abortion process with real-time instructions and support from an online help desk overseen by doctors. The researchers found that 95% of these self-sourced and self-managed abortions were successful.

They also found low rates of complications. Less than 1% of the women reported needing a blood transfusion, and 2.6% said they received antibiotics. Less than 10% reported symptoms of potentially serious complications, and almost all of those women said they sought in-person medical attention when they were advised to do so.

The women in the study received consultations and abortion pills from Netherlands-based telemedicine nonprofit Women on Web, which has been providing abortion pills since 2006 to women living in countries where they cannot legally or safely access the procedure.

Among the women in the new study, 99.7% said they could cope with their feelings about the decision to have an abortion. When the researchers conducted a similar study last fall, also using data from Women on Web, they found that 94% of women who completed the at-home abortion said they felt grateful for the option and 98% said they would recommend the option to other women with unwanted pregnancies.

Abortion is illegal in Ireland and Northern Ireland except to save a pregnant woman’s life, and women who terminate a pregnancy can face years in prison. While abortion is legal in the United States, 19 states effectively prohibit telemedicine abortions, according to the Guttmacher Institute, and many more have passed increasingly strict laws that make it difficult for women to get abortions at all. Because of this trend, the study’s authors say their findings could have implications for the U.S. and other places where abortion is difficult to access.

“Irish and Northern Irish people who access or help others to access this pathway are choosing an option that has similar effectiveness rates to medication abortion performed in a clinic and has lower rates of complications than continuing a pregnancy to delivery,” said lead author Dr. Abigail R.A. Aiken, an assistant professor at the University of Texas at Austin, in a statement. “In the case of the United States, we already know women are self-sourcing, so there is a public health duty to help make it as safe and supported as possible.”


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The White House Is Cutting More Funds for Overseas Health Organizations Linked to Abortion

The Trump administration announced Monday that it will expand the denial of U.S. funding for foreign health organizations that provide abortion services or even information about abortion. The disruption in funding could threaten hundreds of clinics globally that fight HIV, malaria, Zika and Ebola.

“U.S. taxpayer money should not be used to support foreign organizations that perform or actively promote abortion as a method of family planning in other nations,” a senior administration official said. The official added that the policy will now be called “Protecting Life in Global Health Assistance,” though it is more commonly referred to as the Global Gag Rule or the Mexico City Policy.

The policy applies to some $ 8.8 billion in federal funding given toward global health assistance. The amount of funding appropriated for such programs will not be affected, the official said, but organizations that receive funding will be required to pledge not to “perform or actively promote abortion.”

Read more: Here’s what the Mexico City Policy Means for Women

The policy, which was reinstated by President Donald Trump through an executive order issued on his first full day in office, is typically enforced by Republican administrations and repealed when there are Democrats in the White House.

It formerly applied only to family planning assistance provided through the State Department and the U.S. Administration for International Development (USAID), but Trump’s new provisions extend its application to funding offered through the Department of Defense.

In April, the Trump administration announced that it would discontinue funding for the U.N.’s family planning and reproductive health agency, UNFPA, claiming that the agency had links to “coercive abortion or forced sterilization” programs in China — a claim UNFPA said was “erroneous.”


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Hepatitis C Is Spiking Among Young People

Cases of hepatitis C in the United States have nearly tripled within a five-year period, reaching a new 15-year high of around 34,000 new hepatitis C infections in 2015, federal health officials reported. Experts attribute the higher rates to more injection drug use during the ongoing opioid epidemic.

The new report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) shows that cases of the disease rose substantially, from 850 new cases in 2010 to 2,436 cases in 2015. However, because most people with hepatitis C do not know they have the disease and most new infections go undiagnosed, the CDC estimates there were actually 34,000 new infections in 2015.

The greatest number of new infections are among young people from ages 20 to 29, a spike the CDC says is due to higher use of injection drugs in the opioid epidemic. “We must reach the hardest-hit communities with a range of prevention and treatment services that can diagnose people with hepatitis C and link them to treatment,” said Dr. Jonathan Mermin, director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, in a statement.

Most people living with hepatitis C are baby boomers, a population the CDC says is six times more likely to have an infection compared to other age groups. There are an estimated 3.5 million Americans living with hepatitis C, and the CDC reports that nearly 20,000 people died from the disease in 2015.


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This Is How Much Praise Kids Really Need

To help children thrive emotionally and socially, aim to praise them for their good behavior five times a day, a new study suggests. The research, presented at the British Psychological Society’s annual conference, found that parents who did exactly that saw a boost in their kids’ wellbeing and a drop in hyperactivity and inattention.

For the study, which has not yet been published in a peer-reviewed journal, researchers from De Montfort University in England asked 38 parents of 2- to 4-year-olds to complete questionnaires about their children’s behavior and wellbeing. Some of the parents were also given information about how and when to praise their children for good behavior and were asked to keep track of how many times they did so each day.

After four weeks, the parents who said they praised their kids five times a day saw an improvement in their children’s wellbeing, compared to those who weren’t keeping track. Children in the praise group also had better behavior and reduced levels of hyperactivity and inattention, according to the parents’ responses.

Sue Westwood, senior lecturer at De Montfort University, said that praising a child is a “simple, cost effective intervention” that when used on a regular basis can have a significant impact. “Improved behaviour and wellbeing can result simply from ensuring that a child’s positive actions are rewarded with praise and parents are seen to be observing their good behavior,” she said in a press release.

The study is based on De Montfort’s Five Praises campaign, designed to encourage parents and caregivers to give frequent positive and loving attention to children, especially very young kids. On the campaign’s website, parents can download a weekly chart—similar to the ones used in the new study—to track their five daily instances of positive reinforcement.

“Sometimes it’s easier to criticize than it is to compliment,” the researchers wrote in materials distributed to parents in the study. “Bad behavior is more obvious than good behavior—you’re much more likely to notice when your child is yelling than you are to notice when your child is quietly reading a book.”

But research has shows that regular appreciation and praise fosters feelings of closeness and love in babies and toddlers, the study authors say, and also encourages them to keep up their good behavior.

Researcher Carole Sutton, co-founder of the Five Praises campaign, says that parents should take the opportunity to “catch” their children being good, and to acknowledge their everyday efforts and achievements: toddlers brushing their teeth, learning to ride a tricycle or caring for pets or siblings, for example. At the same time, she says, parents should also set firm boundaries so that children don’t grow to expect unwavering approval.

Five praises a day may not be a magic number; Sutton chose it as a good goal because it echoed the popular advice to eat five servings of fruit and vegetables a day. “You might use fewer or more,” she says, “but the important point is that the children should hear positive messages frequently and over weeks and months, not just for a day or two.”

Sutton also says that not just parents, but grandparents, teachers and anyone who interacts with children of any age should make an effort to praise behaviors they want to encourage in their kids. If they do, she says, “they will almost certainly see a move to more positive patterns of behavior in families, classrooms, in shops—everywhere.”


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This Week in Health: Flesh-Eating Bacteria and the Perks of Coffee

This week brought the harrowing yet inspiring story of a woman who survived an infection from flesh-eating bacteria. It also provided the bottom line on coffee at last. (You’re in luck: it’s good for you.) Here’s what else caught our attention in health news this week. Sign up for our newsletter for more.

I survived flesh-eating bacteria—and it changed my life forever

One woman shares her story of surviving flesh-eating bacteria but losing her leg, foot and hands to the infection.

You Asked: Should I use an air purifier?

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It’s a good idea for people with allergies and asthma. But choosing the wrong type could do more harm than good.

These are the filthiest places in your kitchen

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Think you have a spotless setup? Most home kitchens would receive major health violations if they were rated the same way that restaurants are, according to the shocking results of a new study.

When cancer patients should ask for genetic sequencing

Genetic information about tumors is paving the way to better treatments for cancer, according to new research.

The case for drinking coffee is stronger than ever

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With so much conflicting evidence, it can be tough to know if coffee is good or bad for you. But experts have a new appreciation for the health benefits of coffee.

People with HIV are living 10 years longer

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is no longer as deadly as it used to be, and life expectancy is increasing for those infected, finds a new report.

Taking ibuprofen daily raises your heart attack risk

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Over-the-counter pain relievers, like ibuprofen and naproxen, can increase the risk of heart attacks by a significant amount, a new study finds.

Hepatitis C is spiking among young Americans

Experts blame the opioid epidemic and a rise in injectable drug use.


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Teen Drinking Reaches Lowest Point in 25 Years, CDC Says

Teens are drinking significantly less than they used to.

Underage drinking among teens has reached a new low, ABC News reports. The percent of teens who said they have at least one drink per month dropped from 50.8% in 1991 to just 32.8% in 2015 in a new report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Despite the overall decrease, researchers say binge drinking is still a problem. Of those teens who reported drinking, 57.8% said they had five drinks in a row, and 43.8% said they had drunk at least eight drinks in one sitting.

Researchers examined data from the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, which asks students to answer a self-administered questionnaire. The sample size ranged from 10,904 to 16,410 students between 1991 and 2015, according to ABC.

The new report found that binge drinking among teens has decreased from a high of 31.5% of teens in 1999 to 17.7% of teens in 2015.

Teen drinking has been falling for years, but the CDC and other groups are still concerned about underage drinking. Some research has shown binge drinking can lead to long-lasting problems, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration calls teen drinking a “considerable public health challenge.”

Researchers said one reason for the decrease in teen drinking may be state policies aimed at the issue, according to ABC. They say other policies such as taxes on alcohol, laws that regulate where people can buy or consume alcohol or rules around alcohol advertising might help curb teen drinking going forward.


Health – TIME

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TIME Health: Eye Health


Health – TIME

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People With HIV Are Living 10 Years Longer

More people are living longer lives with HIV, according to a new report published in the Lancet HIV that includes data from more than 88,000 people from 18 countries. People who contracted the virus in recent years are living 10 years longer than people who were infected in the mid 1990s. A 20 year old infected with HIV today can expect to live about 78 years, almost as long as people without the disease.

The researchers, part of the international Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration, say that the introduction of anti-HIV drugs beginning in the early 1990s played a large role in helping people live longer with HIV. The earliest HIV therapies involved dozens of pills taken at different times of the day, but today, many anti-HIV regimens include only a single pill containing a combination of medications taken once a day. This makes it more likely that people will take the drug daily. Today’s drugs are also better at controlling the virus and carry fewer side effects, which improved their ability to extend life expectancy.

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But the drugs alone can’t account for all of the improvement in survival, the study authors say. Since more people with HIV are able to keep their infections under control, doctors are focusing more on also treating their other illnesses, such as heart disease and diabetes, which tend to increase with age. Better healthcare overall for HIV patients is also helping them to live longer.

As encouraging as the results are, they also reveal that for some groups of people who are infected, the gains aren’t as great. People who inject drugs, for example, show slower improvements in life expectancy, likely because they have less access to healthcare and the powerful medications that can keep HIV suppressed.

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The improvements in survival confirm that existing HIV therapies work, the researchers argue, and that extending lives even further requires doesn’t require the discovery of new drugs but better distribution of the ones already available. People with HIV are still not living as long as uninfected people, but making sure that they are given the support they need to not only access the medications but to keep taking them may change that.


Health – TIME

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